Most modern firearms of all species work with hattokinetic projectiles as standard. This means that the weapons never need to be reloaded, only cooled. However, ordinary energy projectiles cannot penetrate an energy shield. In order to damage the enemy, special types of ammunition have been developed to penetrate such shields and heavy armor.
The classic from the good old police films of Earth: Armour piercing ammunition. They are highly accelerated, solid projectiles made of an alloy or special ceramics and plastic. Effective against armor, but useless against energy shields that deflect physical projectiles.
It can penetrate shields by using an anti-hattokinetic energy signature to open a tunnel through the barrier. The success rate here is 70%, as some shields are resistant to it.
They alternate their own vibrational frequency in rapid sequence and simply pass through a normal shield. Unfortunately, this doesn’t work so well with the armor behind it, so several hits are needed to kill a target.
They generate electromagnetic coupling and simply turn off the shield. However, this only works if the shield is already slightly discharged.